Movimento

del '77

D'Amico, Tano. É il '77. [Rome] :

I Libri del no, 1978.

 Apache, June 1976.

Race of boys and dragon [Convegno internazionale contro la repressione]. Tano D'amico's photo. September 1977.

Appello di Radio Alice, [Bologna], Collettivo redazionale Radio Alice, 

March 1977

Indiani metropolitani. Tano D'amico's photo. March 1977.

Zut, [Roma] Stampa alternativa, 1977.

11 Marzo, Giornale dei non garantiti, 1977.

L'espresso: arcipelago corpo 8. Speciale/giornalisti non piu' spettatori.

Movimento del ‘77 is an Italian underground movement established in Italy (mostly Rome and Bologna) in 1977. Centered on a denial of any affiliation the movement demonstrated against the old politic and mechanisms of consensus through playful attitudes and non-violent activities.

Movimento del '77 holdings at the Beinecke

Beinecke's collection provides a complete documentation of the founding and the evolution of Movimento del ’77, and it also sheds light on the post-war avant-garde and related cultural movements in Europe.

Movimento del ’77 papers consist mainly of visual, artistic and literary materials coming mostly from the Dario Fiori's (Collezione Dario Fiori. Riviste Documenti. Libri), and Pablo Echaurren archives.

The collection contains more than 70 underground self-made magazines (among them A/traverso, Zut, Wow, Altrove, Altrove materiali, Bi/lot, Corrispondente operaio, Dalle cantine frocie, Oask?!, Re Nudo, Abat/jour), books, broadsides, posters, and photos.

Uncatalogued holdings from Dario Fiori's collection:

The material may be requested at the Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscript Library and it can be searched through Beinecke's Research tools (Uncatalogued Acquisition).

  • Fabbrica diffusa. Scontro di classe nei servizi e nel territorio.  Milano 1977.

  • Radio? Mais c'est le diable! Ou la beaute des pirates et des potages en sachet.  Paris:  Imp. spe. H.A.Y. [1977]

  • Processo allo stato. [Milano]  Librirossi, 1977.

  • Ren min ri bao. Teoria del Presidente Mao sulla divisione in tre mondi, 1978.

  • Stato precario : mostra di arte caricaturale. Tema: sotto a chi tocca.  Torino:  CIDAS (Centro Italiano Documentazione  Azione e Studi ) 1979.

  • Potere operaio per il comunismo.  Milano: Comitati comunisti rivoluzionari, 1977. 1 v. (1 issue), n. 1,  1977 Dec. At head of title: Autonomia operaia, organizzazione

  • Pagherete tutto.  Milano: Lotta Continua, 1975.

  • Lotta continua: per il movimento degli studenti medi. Milano:  Lotta Continua; 1969.

  • Rivoluzione Comunista. Giovane, vieni al partito: combatti con noi crisi e terrore statale per la difesa proletaria e la rivoluzione!  Milano: P.C. Int. - La Rivoluzione Comunista,  1977.

  • II Congresso di Lotta continua: Rimini, 31 ottobre-4 novembre 1976.  Roma:  Coop. "Edizioni Savelli" 1976.

  • DeSanna, Jole, Lettere raccolte in una società e pubblicate per l'istruzione di alcune altre.  Milano:  Maschera, 1977.

  • Abracadabra.  Luxembourg, 1977. 2 v. (2 issues)

  • North: laboratorio di poesia e sperimentazione visiva. Zingonia, Bergamo: Massimo Gualtieri, 1977. 2 v. (2 issues). Nos. 5/6, 7/8 (1977 mar-apr)

  • Preziosi, Marco, Rivoluzione senza proletari: che cos'e un compagno.  Brescia: Contropotere, 1977.

  • Collettivo redazionale Radio Alice. Appello di Radio Alice a tutti coloro per I quali la liberta di informazione non e solo liberta per I borghesi di insulare I proletari.  1 L. : broadside

  • Settembre 1977: Introduzione al dibattito. Stapled mimeographs.

  • Convegno nazionale: (2nd: 1977:  Bologna). Lotta Continua, 1977. Blueline proof copy

  • Vespasiano degli omosessuali.  Milano: Collettivi Omosessuali Milanesi;  [1976] Suppl. speciale a: "Re nudo", n.43.

  • La luna o il dito. Si canterà nei tempi bui?  Si Canterà dei Tempi bui? [Bologna]  1978. 1 v. ( 1 issue). No. 2 (1978 febb.) [ Supplemento di: Il cerchio di gesso ]

  • No alla criminalizzazione della comunicazione antagonista.  [Bologna] 1977. 1 L. (2 p.)

  • Fallo a pezzi! Giornale murale numero primo.  Trento: Arti Grafiche Saturnia, 1977. April 1977 issue. 1 L. folded into 12 p."Supplemento di Provocazione"

  • Fuoco: periodico di controinformazione  e di agitazione rivoluzionaria.1973-1977.

  • Risposta dell’O.A.M. alle calunnie del Mov. degli studenti (M.S.). L'O.A.M. 1 L. : broadside. Mimeograph on orange paper.

  • Vogliamo tutto.  Milano: 1976 – 1977. Issues: A.2: 8/9 (1976 Apr./maggio) noted as a Supplemento a Katu Flash, no. 7 (1977 Apr.) issue

  • Pogo. Organo del movimento Dadaista.  Milano: Stampa Accertamento Diffusione, 1977. A.1:2 (1977 Sett. 29 ). From cover: Dada + Punk = Pogo

  • Ambigua utopia.   Milano:  1977. "Rivista di critica marx/z/iana. A. 1, n. 1 (dic. 1977)

  • Rivoluzione sta dietro una porta? Cerchiamo di aprire quella giusta!  Roma: 1978. 1 v.  (1 issue) No. 2 (1977 sett.)

  • Difendere la liberta ovunque terrore della repressione e terrorismo.  [Roma]  1975. Stapled mimeograph

  • Narval. Poesie.  Milano:  1977. 2 v. ( 2 issues). Nos. [1] -2 (undated - 1977 ott.-dic. ). Issue no. 2 is "Suppl. al n. 29/30 de "l'erba voglio"

  • Complotto (di Zurigo) ( 1 issue) 1L. folded into 8 p. Settembre 1977.

  • Identikit del sovversivo Fornitoci dal BND (Servizio Segreto Tedesco) [Milano] [1977]. 2 L. (4 p.) Stampato in proprio; supplemento all'Erba Voglio n. 28 dir.resp. Elvio Fachinelli

  • Sensazione del soffice blu in una . . . scriviamoci addosso parliamoci addosso, sprechiamo parole e scritti, surrealizziamo tutto, mischiamo mettiamoci nella le carte, logica del non senso: insomma facciamo di tutto perché la confusione e regni e perché tutto perda significato... [Roma] [1977]1 L. ( 2 p.)

  • Ideologica italiana nel deserto corrente: delirio & diossina. [S.l.]  1977. 1 L. (4 p.)

  • Quarto piano: e un foglio comunista di cultura, arte, realtà, fantasia e forse di politica.  Sora: 1978.N. 15 (1978 febbr.). 1 L. folded into 8 p.

  • Hit. An international u.counter-media.  Milan:  "arc/do"  1975.1 v.  (1 issue)

  • Berardi, Franco; Bolelli, Franco; Zingoni, Andrea. Per una deriva felice.  [S.l.] [n.d.] 2 L. stapled leaves

  • Finestra.  Periodico Sotterraneo di cultura alternativa.  Vigevano:  1977-1978. No. 1, 2, 4 (1977- 1978 febbr/mar.)

  • Mario. Mensile. Rivista a fumetti.  Firenze:  Rotografica Fiorentina, 1976. N. 1 (1976 apr.)

  • "Supplemento a "Re Nudo, no. 39 Aprile 1976 Anno 5"

  • Zetkin, Clara, Lenin e il movimento femminile.  Roma:  Centro Rosso, 1977.

  • KATU.  Milano:  1975. 1 v. (1 issue) (1975 mar.)

  • Poesia metropolitana. Gatti selvaggi. Poesia sono tutti i gesti radicali della vita in rivolta. Milano:  Edizioni Puzz, 1975. No. 4 (1975 nov./dic.)

  • Constantini, Romeo, Non c'era una volta.  Milano:  I Libri del No, c1977.

  • Millenovecentosettantasette: autonomia/organizzazione documenti da: Milano, Roma, Torino, Napoli, Padova, Palermo, Bologna, Cosenza.

  • Berardi, Franco; Rival, Pierre; Guillerme, Alain. Ideologia francese: contro i nuovi filosofi.  Milano:  Squilibri, 1977.

  • Ca balà: rivista mensile di umorismo grafico e satira politica.  Firenze: Centro di Documentazione Pistoia; Cooperativa Lavoratori Officine Grafiche Firenze, 1976-1977. (3  Issues)

  • Cevro-Vukovic, Emina, Vivere a sinistra: vita quotidiana e impegno politico nell'Italia degli anni '70. Un'inchiesta. Roma:  Arcana Editrice, 1976.

  • Erba voglio : servitù e liberazione di massa.  Milano:  Nessi, 1971-1977. 24 v. ( 24 issues)

  • Critica marxista: rivista bimestrale.  Roma:  Editori Riuniti Sezione Periodici, 1977. A. 15:3 (1977 mag-giu)

  • A/traverso: rivista per l'autonomia.  Bologna:  1976-1978. 4 v. ( 4 issues)

  • Per il potere operaio: giornale dei collettivi politici del veneto.  Milano:  Tipografia Botti, 1977. No. 2 April 1977

  • Voce operaia: giornale-rivista di lotta di massa e di critica politica per il leninismo oggi in italia. Torino:  Partito Comunista Marxista-Leninsta Italiano, 1977. 2 v. ( 2 issues)

  • Bi/lot : roba di periferia : giornale dell'eutanasia : giornale dell'autopsia dell'autonomia.  Brianza:  1977 - 1978. 2 v. ( 2 issues)

  • Lattemiele.  Milano:  [1977] 1 v. ( 1 issue)

  • Senza testata : vuol far brillare la totalità  dell'autovalorizzazione proletaria contro la valorizzazione-comando del capitale.  [ S.l.] 1978. 1 v. ( 1 issue)

  • Altare della patria in fiamme. Sui fatti di Bologna e Roma. Cancerogena e' la lotta di classe: le giornate di marzo hanno visto in piazza de cine di migliaia di giovani proletari , disoccupati, studenti, non garantiti, marginali . . . Parole e cose. Cronologia di movimento. Darfo:  [1977]. Stapled mimeograph

  • Collettivo Femminista Bolognese, Siamo isteriche.  Bologna. 1976. 1 L. folded into  4p.

  • Wam : Periodico di poesia, arte, cultura e varia umanita. [Roma] 1977.

  • Pre-print : l'autonomia possibile.  Roma: Coop. Linea di condotta, 1978-1979. 2 v. ( 2 issues)

  • 20130808- 73188

  • Agave.  Roma:  1977. (1 issue) "In occasione del Convegno di Bologna dei settembre 1977"

  • Controcorrente.  Milano:  Grafica Effetti, 1977. (1 issue)

  • Desir: durante la luna delle Ciliegie Nere.  Bologna: 1976-1977. 2 v. (2 issues)

  • Civette.  1977. ( 1 issue)

  • Addaveni! Giornale comunista marxista-leninista. A cura di Comitato Comunista (m-l) di Unita e di Lotta. Milano:  1977.1 v. (1 issue) A.2:2 (1977 mar)

  • Sanguinetti, Gianfranco, Avviso al proletariato sugli avvenimenti delle ultime ore.  Compagni!  I rivoluzionari  non devono sotto valutarne la profondità dell'attuale scontro di classe, ne la crisi in cui si dibattono tutti i poteri e tutti i partiti, perche questi sono i risultati della loro stessa lotta . . . Roma:  1977.1 L. : broadside

  • Margine ambiguo.  Roma:  Stampa Tipografia, 1977. n. 1 ( 1977 giu 15)

  • Red Azione diretta : dalla realtà del lavoro sommerso.  Ferrara:  Centro di Controinformazione, 1977. 1 v. ( 1 issue)

  • Pritemps Italie.  Paris:  G. Tautin, 1977. 1 v. (1 issue) Supplemento di:  A/traverso : giornale dell'autonomia

  • Sesto senso: foglio per l'autonomia dall'Hinterland Metropolitano.  [S.l.] 1977. N. 1 (1977)

  • Chiamiamo comunismo: il movimento reale che distrugge e supera lo stato presente delle cose.  Firenze:  Rotografica fiorentina, 1975-1977. ( 4 issues)

  • Punk Artist.  Milano:  Studioriga, 1979. ( 3 issues)

  • Senza famiglia.  Roma; Brescia:  1977.(2 issues)

  • Come in Germania: foglio di controinformazione e di lotta.  Brescia:  1977.(1 issue)

  • Giù le mani da Macondo. Milano:  1978.1 L. (2 p.)

  • Zut.  Roma :  1977. ( 2 issues)

 

 

Related collections

 

Tano D'Amico

Pablo Echaurren

Fausto Giaconne

Ugo La Pietra

Lotta Continua

The “Movement of ’77” arose in March 1977 and ended in September of the same year with the “Congress against Repression” in Bologna. It was characterized by extreme heterogeneity and it has two main aspects: the political one, started primarily by groups of the extra-parliamentary left, and the artistic one. Both groups declared their objection to and denial of any affiliation, such as families, trade unions, and system of parties.

The Movement started as a consequence of the University’s reform proposed by the Minister Malfatti and it is well know for the harsh fights it caused between the police and protesters in Bologna and Rome.

As a result of the old revolutionary groups exhausting their initial force, the Movement of ’77 proposes direct and immediate changes and develops a new idea of counter-power. The tension between the movement’s activists and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) led to the final separation, and the Movement took a stand against the “Historic Compromise” (the political alliance between the Christian Democrats and the PCI).

This year was also characterized by terrorism and violence. The struggle against the established power was organized by local groups and was location and rooted in the territory. All the major Italian cities – Rome, Bologna, Venezia, and Torino - faced armed fighting in the streets.

February 17, 1977 marked the first clash in Rome. The students, who were occupying the building of La Sapienza University, vanquished Luciano Lama, secretary-general of CGIL, and were involved in violent fighting with the CGIL’s security service. Less than a month later, Francesco Lorusso, a militant of Lotta Continua was killed during a protest against the Communion and Liberation’s meeting in Bologna. After this episode, the city faced two days of clashes, riots, and continuous fighting between Police and civilians. On October 1, 1977 in Torino, a group of Lotta Continua militants torched a bar, frequented by right-wing activists, killing Roberto Crescenzio, a 23-year-old student.

One of the last events of the Movement was the “Congress against the repression” in Bologna on September 23-25.

 

 

 

 

 

 

As Claudia Salaris explained in her book, Il movimento del settantasette. Linguaggi e scritture dell'ala creativa, the model was not neo-experimentalism, but rather the historical avant-gardes of the early 20th century. Following the principles of Dadaism, the artistic part of the Movement promotes nonsense as a form of wisdom and the mass practice of creativity. It aimed to abolish the separation between art and everyday life. Inspired by the works of Raoul Vaneigem, Gilles Deleuzes, and Felix Guattari, the Movement is generally characterized by a profound critique of the language of authority and conformity. It rebelled against the idea of group and social identity, but also against the extreme militancy.

As Punk music’s spread around the world as a form of protest, Radio Alice spread its rebellion waves, rejecting association with the mainstream. The headquarters of the radio station was in via del Pratello in Bologna and it soon became the mouthpiece of “Comunicazione liberata” (liberated communication), denouncing the horrorifying abuse by police during the manifestations. The police closed the station down on March 12th and the people involved with it were arrested with false accusations.

In Rome, the "Indiani metropolitani" were the greatest representatives of the quest for autonomy and linguistic experimentation. Promoting the end of the work (“never more work”), they protested against the old politic and mechanisms of consensus. They manifested through playful attitudes and non-violent activities such as roundabouts, irony, fooling, and their faces were frequently painted.

The anti-art of Vladimir Mayakovsky became an important source of inspiration along with Mao. In particular, the Maodadaisti supported the idea of the writing as a form of creative revolution. Another group of artists, connected to the magazine WOW, were the Totoisti, who enhanced the myth of Totò and promulgated the idea of delirium and folly as a form of art and understanding.

As revolutionary words spread through underground magazines and Radio Alice, the imagines were those of Tano D’amico. His photos became an essential testimony of battles and day to day life in 1977.

 

Creative groups

Movimento del '77

At the gates of the university. Tano D'amico's photo. February 1977.

Franceso Lorusso tra i suoi compagni militari. Tano D'amico's photo. September 1976.

Indians at the Festival of Spring. Tano D'amico's photo. March 1977.

Creative weapons

Irony was perhaps the Movement’s strongest weapon. In the magazine Zut there is a specific definition of the term as a «manifestation of anguish». The editors precised: «What interests us is the sense of bitterness that irony leaves us, its acting to nullify. Irony opens spaces, disrupts, shows what now it can no longer be hiden». The “gioco del rovesciamento”, or détournement, became a practice of freedom in order to demolish the sense, in order to «far saltare la dittatura del Significato […] far saltare la dittatura del Politico» (blow up the Meaning’s dictatorship of [...] to blow up the Political’s dictatorshis).

 

The art of mocking older mottos was also a subversive act of words’ and world’s revolution. The Movement always used “giochi di parole” (word puns) – literally words’s games – in which famous sentences are modify in order to create a nonsensical slogan. Famous examples are: “Potere dromedario” (dromedary power) instead of “Potere operaio” (workers' power) or “felce e mirtillo” (fern and blueberry) insted of “falce e martello” (hammer and sickle).

 

 The other renowned weapon is the use of falsehood in order to demolish the excessive power of the media. The activist made fake calls for meaningless protests or a published a bogus new laws (one of them stated the necessity to install rear-view mirror on the left side of each car). As A/traverso asserted «false information can produce real and true effect» and this lead to the creation of CDNA, Centro Diffusioni notizie arbitrarie (Center for arbitrary news spreading). Its goal was to create false news or hoaxes in order to fabricate a falsification of information’s sistem, or as Zut ironically aims «to pass from the ethic state to ethyl state». Its program has mainly three points: Abrogate laws that punish the dissemination of false news; creating specialized courses in the art of forgery; financing of the CDNA.

Underground Magazines

In 1977, writing became a collective act and an action against the monopoly of the media; it ratified the end of the History and the beginning of the histories.

The Movement counts more than 60 underground magazines, usually short-term papers, frequently published only once, self-made by non-professional journalists. Many of them listed Marcello Baraghini as editor-in-chief, since the underground publisher bravely authorized anyone to use his name in that way in order to comply with Italian regulations dealing with publication.

In general, the 'zines were characterized by the use of visual elements (drawings, cartoons, and pictures), cut-up of newspaper cuttings, slogans, and handwritten or typed and printed articles, mixed in a extremely chaotic way.

Inspired by Lacan and Derrida, the use of a slash was also poular in order to multiply the meanings: di/versi, (di/verses) dis/fare, (un/make), dis/gregazione (dis/aggregation), red/azione (editing/red action), enig/mistica, es/senza, s/partito, de/finire, and so on.

The technique was also used for the title of one of the most popular journals, A/traverso. The magazine was founded by Bifo (Franco Berardi) and published in Bologna from 1975 to 1987.  The editors of the magazine were Franco Berardi, Stefano Saviotti, Guerrino Matteo, Luciano Capelli, Claudio Cappi, Polo Ricci, Maurizio Torrealta, and Marzia Bisognin. The magazine was connected with the historical avant-gardes Dada and Futurism and in particular with the idea of Maodadaism proposed at the Convegno di Orvieto della Cooperativa Scrittori (June 1976).  The journal aimed to use «writing as an act of destruction, writing for the primacy of the autonomy over the institution, writing as the primacy of creative intelligence over accumulated and codified one». The main goals for the journal were the quest for autonomy, the liberation from work, and the practice of “transversal communication” as a collective writing. A/traverso was, as Radio Alice (Alice è il diavolo, L’Erba voglio, Milano, 1976) «the voice of those who never had a voice».

Another important magazine was Zut, published in the Roma from 1976 to 1977, for a total of four issues. The word “Zut”means “I don’t care” in French and a French artist had previously used it as a nickname, but it that doesn’t have any meaning in Italian. Angelo Pasquini, Piero Lo Sardo, and Mario Canale edited the journal, in collaboration with Giancarlo De Simoni, Gilles Wright, and Gerrj (Gerretana).

The main characteristics of the magazine were the focus on the meaning of art and its parody, the use of paradox, the linguistic distortion and photographic détournement.

The journal also collaborated in the creation of the CDNA (Center for arbitrary news spreading).

In Milan, two famous magazines were published. The first one is Wow, the magazine of the “Clubs of the young proletariat in de/composition,” edited by Dario Fiori in March and April of 1977 (only 2 issues). The recovery of the myth of Totò and the quest for the Wow-Fifth International is due to this periodical. The second magazine is Viola, distributed in the biennium of  ’76-’77, and edited by Luigi Ambrogi and Circoli del proletariato giovanile.

 

Oask?! was founded in Roma in March 1977 and edited by Maurizio Gabbianelli, Massimo Terracini, Pablo Echaurren, Massimo Pasquini, Olivier Torquet (alias Gandalf il Viola), Carlo Infante, Roberto Di Reda, Francesco Saglio, Sergio Pelà, and Gloria Malatesta. It was the magazine of the Indiani Metropolitani and represented the refusal of politics and the negation of revolution’s myth.  It was almost integrally hand-written and it contained collective texts, cartoons, and drawings. Pablo Echaurren also edited the graphic project.

L'unanimità. July, 1977.

Parole ribelli : i fogli del movimento del 77 . Edited by Pablo Echaurren. 1997

Resources

Video Resources

History of the Movimento del '77. (1/4)

History of the Movimento del '77. (3/4)

History of the Movimento del '77. (2/4)

History of the Movimento del '77. (4/4)